What Issues Do Both The Kyoto Protocol And The Paris Agreement Address
Under the GIS, a party to the protocol that expects that the development of its economy will not exhaust its Kyoto quota can sell the surplus of its Kyoto quota units (AAUs) to another party. The proceeds from the sale of UQA should be „green“, i.e. dedicated to the development and implementation of projects, either the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (hard greening) or the establishment of the necessary framework for this process (soft greening). :25 The first difference is that the Kyoto Protocol created three mechanisms, but Article 6.4 of the Paris Agreement creates only one mechanism. However, it is not yet known what kind of mechanism will be put in place and whether it is a centralized mechanism or a facilitation mechanism, from the bottom up. Nor is it clear whether this will be a broad mitigation mechanism in which a large number of mitigation approaches (. B, for example, related to projects, sectors, policies) will be possible or if they will be more limited. In addition, it is not yet known whether it will be a basic and credit mechanism or whether it will include a negotiating mechanism.  However, it seems reasonable to assume that Article 6.4 will not contain a centralized emissions trading system, as this would require the establishment of national international targets vis-à-vis States in order to enable trade and to set conditions for connection.  On the contrary, Emissions trading schemes are covered by Articles 6.1 and 6.2 of the Paris Agreement, which provide for the parties to cooperate voluntarily in the implementation of their INDCs to strengthen the ambition of their mitigation measures, including the use of internationally transferred mitigation results (ITMMs) to nationally established contributions.
Indeed, an EIT requires the adoption of national objectives at the international level, as well as a multitude of rules to allow trade and systems to bind, and these decisions are not compatible with the architecture of the Paris Agreement, since the emphasis is on INDCs. Therefore, while Article 6.2 is essentially the basis for the creation of the emissions trading system between countries and the interconnection of national emissions trading schemes, as ITMOs are the new currency, the only conditions under Article 6.2 are that systems promote sustainable development, environmental integrity and do not lead to double accounts. Articles 6, 12 and 17 of the Kyoto Protocol and Article 6 of the Paris Agreement are very similar. Participation in the mechanisms is voluntary, they must contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gases, ensure the integrity of the environment and promote sustainable development, and strong rules, modalities and procedures are needed to regulate their operation. In addition, both the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement provide that a portion of the proceeds will be used to cover administrative costs and support developing countries threatened by climate change in order to adapt. The 32-part document sets out a framework for global action on climate change, including climate change mitigation and adaptation, support for developing countries and transparency of reporting, and strengthening climate change goals. Here`s what to do: The protocol defines a „compliance“ mechanism as a „monitoring of compliance with obligations and penalties for non-compliance.“  According to Grubb (2003), the explicit consequences of non-compliance with the contract are small in relation to national law.  Nevertheless, the section of the treaty in the Marrakesh agreements was very controversial.  1992: The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development is being held in Rio de Janeiro.